The North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission


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Andersen, L. W., Born, E. W., Stewart, R. E. A., Dietz, R., Doidge, D. W. and Lanthier, C. 2013. A genetic comparison of West Greenland and Baffin Island (Canada) walruses: Management implications. NAMMCO Scientific Publications. doi:

Born, E. W. and Gjertz, I. 1993. A link between walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) in northeast Greenland and Svalbard. Polar Rec. 29:329. doi:

Born, E.W., Rysgaard, S., Ehlme, G., Sejr, M., Acquarone, M. and Levermann, N. 2003. Underwater observations of foraging free-living Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) and estimates of their food consumption. Polar Biology 26:348-357.

Born, E. W., Gjertz, I. and Reeves, R. R. 1995. Population assessment of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus L.). Norsk Polarinstitutt Meddelelser Nr. 138. 100 pp.

Dietz, R., Born, E. W., Stewart, R. E. A., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Stern, H., Rigét, F., Toudal, L., Lanthier, C., Jensen, M. V. and Teilmann, .J. 2013. Movements of walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) between Central West Greenland and Southeast Baffin Island, 2005-2008. NAMMCO Scientific Publications. doi:

[DFO]. Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2013. Estimates of Abundance and Total Allowable Removals for Atlantic Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the Canadian Arctic. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2013/034. (DFO 2013a)

[DFO] Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2013. Proceedings of the Pre-COSEWIC Peer Review Meeting for Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus); February 28 to March 1, 2012. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Proceed. Ser. 2012/041. (DFO 2013 b)

[DFO] Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2012. DFO submission to the NWMB, October 2012. Available at

Fay, F.H., Burns, J.J., Stoker, S.W. and Grundy, J.S. 1994. The Struck-and-Lost Factor in Alaskan Walrus Harvests, 1952-1972. Arctic 47: 368-373.

Freitas, C., Kovacs, K. M., Ims, R. A., Fedak, M. A. and Lydersen, C. 2009. Deep into the ice: overwintering and habitat selection in Atlantic walruses. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 375:247-261. doi:

Gjertz, I., Hansson, R. and Wiig, Ø. 1992. The historical distribution and catch of walrus in Franz Josef Land. Norsk Polarinst. Medd. 120:67-81.

Glazov, D. M. , Shpak, O. V., Kuznetsova, D. M., Solovyev, B. A., Udovik, D. A., Platonov,N. G., Mordvintsev, I. N., Ivanov, D. I., and Rozhnov, V. V. 2013. Observations of the Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in the Barents, Kara, and Laptev Seas in 2010–2012. Biol. Bull. 40:783-789.

Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., M. S. Sinding, N. H. Nielsen, A. Rosing-Asvid and R. G. Hansen 2015. Large numbers of marine mammals winter in the North Water polynya. SC/22/17. Available from the NAMMCO Secretariat.

Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K.L., Fossette, S., Rasmussen, M., Nielsen, N.H. and Hansen, R.G. 2013. Abundance of walruses in Eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. NAMMCO Scientific Publications. doi:

Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Burt, L. M., Hansen, R. G., Nielsen, N. H., Rasmussen, M., Fossette, S. and Stern, H. 2012. The significance of the North Water polyna to Arctic top predators. Ambio 42:596-610.

Lindqvist, C., Bachmann, L., Andersen, L. W., Born, E. W., Arnason, U., Kovacs, K. M., Lydersen, C., Abramov, A. V. and Wiig, Ø. 2008. The Laptev Sea walrus Odobenus rosmarus laptevi: an enigma revisited. Zoologica Scripta 38:113-127.

Lowry, L., Kovacs, K. and Burkanov, V. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Odobenus rosmarus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2.

Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K. 2013. Walrus Odobenus rosmarus research in Svalbard, Norway, 2000-2010. NAMMCO Scientific Publications. doi:

Lydersen , C., Chernook, V., Glazov, D., Trukhanova, I. and Kovacs, K. 2012. Aerial survey of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the Pechora Sea, August 2011. Polar Biol. 35:1555-1562.

Lydersen, C., Aars, J. and Kovacs, K. M. 2008. Estimating the number of walruses in Svalbard from aerial surveys and behavioural data from satellite telemetry. Arctic 61:119-128.

NAMMCO. 2015. NAMMCO Annual Report 2015. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway. 

[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission 2013a. NAMMCO Annual Report 2013. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway, 305 pp. 

[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission 2013b. Report of the 20th Meeting of the Scientific Committee

Orr, J.R., Renooy, B. and Dahke, L. 1986. Information from hunts and surveys of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in northern Foxe Basin, Northwest Territories, 1982-1984. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aqaut. Sci. 1899: vi +24 p.

Outridge, P. M. and Stewart, R. E. A. 1999. Stock discrimination of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern Canadian Arctic using lead isotope and element signatures in teeth. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56:105-112.

Outridge, P. M., Davis, W. J., Stewart, R. E. A. and Born, E. W. 2003. Investigation of the stock structure of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Canada and Greenland using dental Pb isotopes derived from local geochemical environments. Arctic 56:82-90.

Reeves, R.R., Stewart, B.S. and Leatherwood, S. 1992. The Sierra Club Handbook of Seals and Sirenians. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. 359pp.

Richard, P. 2001. Marine Mammals of Nunavut. Dept. of Education, Nunavut. 98pp.

Salter, R. E. 1979. Observations on social behaviour of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus L.) during terrestrial haul-out. Can. J. Zool. 58:461-463.

Shafer, A., Davis, C.S., Coltman, D. W., and Stewart, R. E. A. 2013. Microsatellite assessment of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) stocks in Canada. NAMMCO Scientific Publications. doi:

Sjare, B. and Stirling, I. 1996. The breeding behavior of Atlantic walruses, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, in the Canadian High Arctic. Can. J. Zool. 74(5):897-911.

Sjare, B., Stirling, I. and Spencer, C. 2003. Structural variation in the songs of Atlantic walruses breeding in the Canadian High Arctic. Aquat. Mamm. 29:297-318.

Stewart, R. E. A. 2008. Redefining walrus stocks in Canada. Arctic 61:292-308. 

Stewart, R.E.A. and Hamilton, J.W. 2013. Estimating total allowable removals for walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Nunavut using the potential biological removal approach. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2013/031. iv + 13 p.

Stewart, R. E. A., Born, E. W., Dietz, R., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Rigét, F. F., Laidre, K., Jensen, M. V., Knutsen, L. Ø., Fossette, S. and Dunn, J. B. 2013a. Abundance of Atlantic walrus in western Nares Strait, Baffin Bay stock, during summer. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. doi: 

Stewart, R. E. A., Born, E.W., Dietz, R. and Ryan, A.K. 2013b. Estimates of Minimum Population Size for Walrus around Southeast Baffin Island, Nunavut. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. doi: 

Stewart, R.E.A., Hamilton, J.W. and Dunn, J.B. 2013c. Results of Foxe Basin walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) surveys: 2010-2011. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2013/017. iv + 12 p. (Erratum: February 2014) 

Stirling, I., Calvert, W. and Cleator, H. 1983. Underwater vocalizations as a tool for studying the distribution and abundance of wintering pinnipeds in the High Arctic. Arctic 36:262-274.

Wiig, Ø., Born, E. W. and Stewart, R.E. A. 2014. Management of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the arctic Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications. doi:

Wiig, Ø., Berg, V., Gjertz, I., Seagars, D. J. and Skaare, J. U. 2000. Use of skin biopsies for assessing levels of organochlorines in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). Polar Biology 23:272-278.

Witting, L. and Born, E. W. 2013. Population dynamics of walrus in Greenland. NAMMCO Scientific Publications. doi:

Witting, L. and Born, E.W. 2005. An assessment of Greenland walrus populations. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Journal of Marine Science 62:266–284.

Wolkers, H., van Bavel, B., Ericson, I., Skoglund, E., Kovacs, K. M. and Lydersen, C. 2006. Congener-specific accumulation and patterns of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in adult male walruses from Svalbard, Norway: Indications for individual-specific prey selection. Sci. Total Envi. 370:70-79.