The North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission


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ACIA. 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 1042 pp.

Agafonova, E. V., Verevkin, M. V., Sagitov, R. A., Sipilä, T., Sokolovskay, M. V. and Shahnazarova, V. U. 2007. The ringed seal in Lake Ladoga and the Valaam Archipelago. Baltic Fund for Nature of Saint-Petersburg Naturalist Society, St. Petersburg State University & Metsähallitus, Natural Heritage Servives, Vammalan Kirjapaino OY., Vammala, Finland

Andersen, S. M., Lydersen, C., Grahl-Nielsen, O., and Kovacs, K. M. 2004. Autumn diet of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) at Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard, assessed via scat and fatty-acid analyses. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1230–1245.

Bang, K., Jenssen, B.M., Lydersen, C. and Skaare, J.U. 2001. Organochlorine burdens in blood of ringed and bearded seals from north‐western Svalbard. Chemosphere 44:193‐203.

Belikov, S.E. and Boltunov, A.N. 1998. The ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in the western Russian Arctic. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:63-82.

Bengtson, J.L., Hiruki-Raring, L.M., Simpkins, M.A. and Boveng, P.L. 2005. Ringed and bearded seal densities in the eastern Chukchi Sea, 1999-2000. Polar Biology 28: 833-845.

Bonner, N. 1994. Seals and sea lions of the world. Blandford, London, 224 pp.

Borgå, K., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Kleivane, L., Norstrom, R.J. and Fisk, A.T. 2005. Why do organochlorine differences between arctic regions vary among trophic levels? Environmental Science & Technology 39:4343‐4352.

Born, E.W., Teilmann, J. and Riget, F. 2002. Haul-out activity of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) determined from satellite telemetry. Marine Mammal Science 18: 167-181.

Born, E.W., Teilmann, J., Acquarone, M. and Riget, F.F. 2004. Habitat Use of Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida) in the North Water Area (North Baffin Bay). Arctic 57(2):129–142.

CAFF 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Carlens, H., Lydersen, C., Krafft, B. A., and Kovacs, K. M. 2006. Spring haul-out behavior of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 22(2):379–393. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2006.00034.x

Dehn, L.‐A., Sheffield, G., Follmann,E., Duffy, L., Thomas, D. and O’Hara, T. 2007. Feeding ecology of phocid seals and some walrus in the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic as determined by stomach contents and stable isotope analysis. Polar Biology 30:167‐181.

Dietz, R. 2008. Contaminants in marine mammals in Greenland ‐‐ with linkages to trophic levels, effects, diseases and distribution. DSc Thesis. University of Aarhus, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. 120 p.

Dietz, R., Paludan-Müller, P., Agger, C.T. and Nielsen, C.O. 1998. Cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland and Svalbard. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:242-273.

Fedoseev, G. A. 2000. Population biology of ice‐associated forms of seals and their role in the northern Pacific ecosystems. Center for Russian Environmental Policy, Russian Marine Mammal Council, Moscow, Russia. 271 p. (Translated from Russian by I. E. Sidorova).

Ferguson, S., and Secretariat, C. S. A. 2009. Review of aerial survey estimates for ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in western Hudson Bay. Center for Science Advice, Central and Arctic Region, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Science Advisory Report 2009/004. 5 p.

Ferguson, S. H., Stirling, I. and Mcloughlin, P. M. 2005. Climate change and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) recruitment in western Hudson Bay. Marine Mammal Science 21(1):121-135.

Finley, K. J., Miller, G. W., Davis, R.A. and Koski, W.R. 1983. A distinctive large breeding population of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) inhabiting the Baffin Bay pack ice. Arctic 36:162‐173.

Fisk, A. T., de Wit, C.A., Wayland, M., Kuzyk, Z.Z., Burgess, N., Robert, R., Braune, B., Norstrom, R., Blum, S.P., Sandau, C., Lie, E., Larsen, H.J.S., Skaare, J.U. and Muir, D.C.G. 2005. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Science of the Total Environment 351:57‐93.

Fisk, A. T., Holst, M., Hobson, .A., Duffe, J., Moisey, J. and Norstrom, R.J. 2002. Persistent organochlorine contaminants and enantiomeric signatures of chiral pollutants in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected on the east and west side of the northwater polynya, Canadian Arctic. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 42:118‐126.

Freitas, C., Kovacs, K.M., Fedak, M.A. and Lydersen, C. 2008a. Ringed seal post-moulting movement tactics and habitat selection. Oecologia 155(1): 193–204. DOI:10.1007/s00442-007-0894-9

Freitas, C., Kovacs, K.M. and Lydersen, C. 2008b. Predicting habitat use by ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in a warming Arctic. Ecological Modelling 217(1-2): 19–32. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.05.014

Frost, K.J., Lowry, L.F., Pendleton, G. and Nute, H.R. 2004. Factors affecting the observed densities of ringed seals, Phoca hispida, in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, 1996-1999. Arctic 57:115-128.

Furgal, C.M., Innes, S. and Kovacs, K.M. 2002. Inuit spring hunting techniques and local knowledge of the ringed seal in Arctic Bay (Ikpiarjuk), Nunavut. Polar Research 21(1):1-16.

Gjertz, I., Kovacs, K. M., Lydersen, C. and Wiig, Ø. 2000. Movements and diving of adult ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Svalbard. Polar Biology 23:651–656.

Government of Greenland. 2012. Ministry of Fisheries, Hunting and Agriculture. Management and utilization of seals in Greenland. 39pp.

Hammill, M.O. and Smith, T.G. 1990. Application of removal sampling to estimate the density of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Barrow Strait, Northwest Territories. Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:244-250.

Harding, K.C. and Härkönen, T.J. 1999. Development of the Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) populations during the 20th century. Ambio 28:619-627.

Härkönen, T. 2008. Vikaresälen pressad av mildare klimatHavet 2008: 89-90. [In Swedish]

Harkonen, T., Jüssi, M., Jüssi, I., Verevkin, M., Dmitrieva, L., Helle, E., Sagitov, R. and Harding, K.C. 2008. Seasonal activity budget of adult Baltic ringed seals. PLoS ONE 3:e2006. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002006

Härkönen, T., Stenman, O., Jüssi, M., Jüssi, I., Sagitov, R. and Verevkin, M. 1998. Population size and distribution of the Baltic ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica). NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:167-180.

Heide‐Jørgensen, M.P. and Lydersen, C. (eds). 1998. Ringed Seals in the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1, Tromsø, Norway. 273pp.

Hezel , P. J., Zhang, X., Bitz, C. M., Kelly, B. P., and Massonnet, F. 2012. Projected decline in spring snow depth on Arctic sea ice caused by progressively later autumn open ocean freeze-up this century. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L17505.

Holst, M., Stirling, I. and Hobson, K. A. 2001. Diet of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) on the east and west sides of the North Water Polynya, northern Baffin Bay. Marine Mammal Science 17(4):888-908.

Hovelsrud, G. K., McKenna, M. and Huntington, H. P. 2008. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans. Ecological Applications 18:135‐147.

Hyvärinen, H., Sipilä, T., Kunnasranta, M. and Koskela, J.T. 1998. Mercury pollution and the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis). Marine Pollution Bulletin 36:76‐81.

Iversen, M., Aars, J., Haug, T., Alsos, I.G., Lydersen, C., Bachmann, L. and Kovacs, K.M. 2013. The diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway, inferred from scat analysis. Polar Biology 36(4):561–571. DOI:10.1007/s00300-012-1284-2.

Jeffries, M.O., Richter-Menge, J.A. and Overland, J.E. (eds). 2013. Arctic Report Card 2013. reportcard/ArcticReportCard_full_report.pdf

Johanessen, O.M., Miles, M.W. and Bjørgo, E. 1995. The Arctic's shrinking sea ice. Nature 376:126-27.

Johansen, C.E., Lydersen, C., Aspholm, P.E., Haug, T. and Kovacs, K.M. 2010. Helminth parasites in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway with special emphasis on nematodes: Variation with age, sex, diet, and location of host. Journal of Parasitology 96(5):946–953. DOI:10.1645/GE-1685.1

Kapel, F.O., Christiansen, J., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Härkönen, T., Born, E.W., Knutsen, L.Ø., Riget, F. and Teilmann, J. 1998. Netting and conventional tagging used to study movements of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Greenland. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:211-228.

Karlsson, O., Härkönen, T. and Bäcklin, B.-M. 2007. Seals on the increase [In Swedish - Sälar på uppgång]. Havet 2007: 84-89.

Kelly, B. P., Badajos, O.H., Kunnasranta, M. and Moran, J. 2006. Timing and re‐interpretation of ringed seal surveys. Coastal Marine Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks, Final Report. 60 p.

Kelly, B. P., Badajos, O.H., Kunnasranta, M. and Moran, J., Martinez-Bakker, M., Wartzok, D. and Boveng, P. 2010a. Seasonal home ranges and fidelity to breeding sites among ringed seals. Polar Biology, 33:1095-1109.

Kelly, B.P., Bengtson, J.L., Boveng, P.L., Cameron, M.F., Dahle, S.P., Jansen, J.K., Logerwell, E.A., Overland, J.E., Sabine, C.l., Waring, G.T. and Wilder, J. M. 2010b. Status Review of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida). U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-212. 250pp.

Kelly, B.P. and Quakenbush, L.T. 1990. Spatiotemporal use of lairs by ringed seals (Phoca hispida). Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:2503-2512.

Kingsley, M.C.S. 1998. The number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Baffin Bay and associated waters. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:181-96.

Kingsley, M.C.S. 1990. The status of the ringed seal, Phoca hispida, in Canada. Prepared for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Cananda. Can. Field.-Nat. 104:138-145.

Kingsley, M.C.S. and Byers, T. 1998. Failure of reproduction in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Amundsen Gulf, Northwest Territories in 1984-1987. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:197-210.

Kostamo, A., Hyvärinen, H., Pellinen, J. and Kukkonen, J. V. K. 2002. Organochlorine concentrations in the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) from Lake Haukivesi, Finland, 1981-2000. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(77):1368-1376.

Kovacs, K. (ed.). 2014. Circumpolar ringed seal (Pusa hispida) monitoring. Norwegian Polar Institute, Report Series 143. 45pp.

Kovacs, K.M., Aguilar, A., Aurioles, D., Burkanov, V., Campagna, C., Gales, N., Gelatt, T., Goldsworthy, S.D., Goodman, S.J., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Härkönen, T., Lowry, L., Lydersen, C., Schipper, J., Sipilä, T., Southwell, C., Stuart, S., Thompson, D. and Trillmich, F. 2012. Global threats to pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 28(2):414–436. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00479.x

Kovacs, K., Lowry, L. and Härkönen, T. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Pusa hispida. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2.

Kovacs, K.M. and Lydersen, C. 2006. Population biology of ringed seals in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Research in Tromsø:3–4.

Kovacs, K. M. and Lydersen, C. 2008. Climate change impacts on seals and whales in the North Atlantic Arctic and adjacent shelf seas. Science Progress 91:117-150.

Krafft, B.A., Kovacs, K.M., Andersen, M., Aars, J., Lydersen, C., Ergon, T. and Haug, T. 2006a. Abundance of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in the fjords of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, during the peak molting period. Marine Mammal Science 22(2):394–412.

Krafft, B. A., Kovacs, K. M., Frie, A. K., Haug, T. and Lydersen, C. 2006b. Growth and population parameters of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway, 2002–2004. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63:1136–1144. DOI:10.1016/j.icesjms.2006.04.001

Krafft, B.A., Kovacs, K.M. and Lydersen, C. 2007. Distribution of sex and age groups of ringed seals Pusa hispida in the fast-ice breeding habitat of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Marine Ecology Progress Series 335:199–206. DOI:10.3354/meps335199

Krupnik, I., Aporta, C., Gearheard, S., Laidler, G.J. and Kielsen Holm, L. (eds). 2010. SIKU: Knowing Our Ice: Documenting Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge and Use. Springer Science and Business Media.

Labansen, A. L., Lydersen, C., Haug, T., and Kovacs, K. M. 2007. Spring diet of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from northwestern Spitsbergen, Norway. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64:1246–1256.

Labansen, A. L., Lydersen, C., Levermann, N., Haug, T. and Kovacs, K.M. 2011. Diet of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Northeast Greenland. Polar Biol. 34(2):227-234.

Laidre, K. L., Stirling, I., Lowry, L.F., Wiig, Ø., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Ferguson, S.H. 2008. Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecological Applications 18 (Supplement: Arctic Marine Mammals):97-125.

Learmonth, J. A., Macleod, C. D., Santos, M. B., Pierce, G. J., Crick, H. Q. P. and Robinson, R. A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 44:431-446

Leclerc, L.-M., Lydersen, C., Haug, T., Bachmann, L., Fisk, A.T. and Kovacs, K.M. 2012. A missing piece in the Arctic food web puzzle? Stomach contents of Greenland sharks sampled in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Biology 35(8):1197–1208. DOI:10.1007/s00300-012-1166-7

Lunn, N. J., Stirling, I. and Nowicki, S.N. 1997. Distribution and abundance of ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in western Hudson Bay. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54:914‐921.

Lydersen, C. 1998. Status and biology of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Svalbard. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:46-62.

Lydersen, C., Assmy, P., Falk-Petersen, S., Kohler, J., Kovacs, K.M., Reigstad, M., Steen, H., Strøm, H., Sundfjord, A., Varpe, Ø., Walczowski, W., Weslawski, J.M. and Zajaczkowsk, M. 2014. The importance of tidewater glaciers for marine mammals and seabirds in Svalbard, Norway. Journal of Marine Systems 129: 452–471. DOI:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.09.006

Lydersen, C., Freitas, C. and Kovacs, K.M. 2007. Ringed seals need snow and ice. Klima 1: 38–40.

Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K.M. 2010. Svalbard's resident marine mammals and the climate threat. p. 64–67. In Bjørge, A., Lydersen, C., Skern-Mauritzen, M. and Wiig, Ø. (eds). Marine Mammals. Fisken og havet, special ed. 2-2010. 95pp.

Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K. 2013. Walrus Odobenus rosmarus research in Svalbard, Norway, 2000-2010. NAMMCO Scientific Publications. doi:

Moore, S.E. and Huntington, H.P. 2008. Arctic Marine Mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience. Ecological Applications 18(2): 157-165.

Meier, H. E. M., Descher, R. and Halkka, A. 2004. Simulated distributions of Baltic Sea-ice in warming climate and consequences for the winter habitat of the Baltic ringed seal. AMBIO 33: 249-256.

Miyazaki, N. 2002. Ringed, Caspian, and Baikal seals Pusa hispida, P. caspica, and P. sibirica. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 1033-1037. Academic Press.

McLaren, I. A. 1958. The biology ofthe ringed seal (Phoca hispida Schreber) in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Bulletin Fisheries Research Board of Canada 118: 97pp.

Moore, S.E. and H.P. Huntington, 2008: Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience. Ecological Applications: A Publication of the Ecological Society of America 18(2 Suppl):157-165.

Moulton, V.D., Richardson, W.J., Elliott, R.E., McDonald, T.L., Nations, C. and Williams, M.T. 2005. Effects of an offshore oil development on local abundance and distribution of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Marine Mammal Science 21: 217-242.

Muir, D., Braune, B. DeMarch, B., Norstrom, R., Wagemann, R., Lockhart, L., Hargrave, B., Bright, D. Addison, R., Payne, J. and Reimer, K. 1999. Spatial and temporal trends and effects of contaminants in the Canadian Arctic marine ecosystem: a review. Science of the Total Environment 230:83‐144.

[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 1997a. Report of the Fourth Meeting of the Scientific Committee. p. 97-136. In: NAMMCO, Annual Report 1996. Tromsø, Norway. 227pp.

[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 1997b. Report of Scientific Committee ad hoc Working Group on ringed seals - Tòrshavn 5-8 February 1996. p. 137-153. In: NAMMCO, Annual Report 1996. Tromsø, Norway, 227pp.

[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2004. Report of the NAMMCO workshop on hunting methods for seals and walrus. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway. 60pp.

[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2006. Report of the NAMMCO workshop to address the problems of "Struck and Lost" in seal, walrus and whale hunting. Copenhagen, Denmark, 78pp.

[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2009. Report of the NAMMCO expert group meeting on best practices in the hunting and killing of seals. Copenhagen, Denmark. 30pp.

Perovich, D., Gerland, S., Hendricks, S., Meier, W., Nicolaus, M., Richter-Menge1, J., Tschudi, M. 2013. Sea Ice. In: Jeffries, M. O., J. A. Richter-Menge, and J. E. Overland, Eds., 2013: Arctic Report Card 2013,

Pilfold, N.W., Derocher, A.E., Stirling, I. and Richardson, E. 2014. Polar bear predatory behaviour reveals seascape distribution of ringed seal lairs. Popul. Ecol. 56(1):129-138.

Polder, A., Odland, J.O., Tkachev, A., Føreid, S., Savinova, T.N. and Skaare, J.U. 2003. Geographic variation of chlorinated pesticides, toxaphenes and PCBs in human milk from sub-arctic and Arctic locations in Russia. Science of the Total Environment 306(1/3):179-95.

Reeves, R.R. 1998. Distribution, abundance and biology of ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an overview. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:9-45.

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Reeves, R.R., Wenzel, G. and Kingsley, M.C.S. 1998. Catch history of ringed seals Phoca hispida in Canada. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 1:100-29.

Reijnders, P.J.H. and de Ruiter-Dijkman, E.M. 1995. Toxicological and epidemiological significance of pollutants in marine mammals. p. 575-587. In: Blix, A.S., Walløe, L. and Ulltang, Ø. (eds.); Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 720pp.

Rosing-Asvid, A. 2006. The influence of climate variability on polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and ringed seal (Pusa hispida) population dynamics. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84/3: 357.

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Rigét, F., Muir, D., Kwan, M., Savinova, T., Nyman, M., Woshner, V. and O'Hara, T. 2005. Circumpolar pattern of mercury and cadmium in ringed seals. Science of the Total Environment 351:312‐322.

Rigét, F., Vorkamp, K., Dietz, R., and Rastogi, S.C. 2006. Temporal trend studies on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ringed seals from East Greenland. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 8:1000‐1005.

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Stirling, I., and Smith. T.G. 2004. Implications of warm temperatures and an unusual rain event on the survival of ringed seals on the coast of southeastern Baffin Island. Arctic 57: 59–67.

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