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References

Alvarez-Flores, C.M. and Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. 2004. A risk assessment of the sustainability of the harvest of beluga Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas 1776) in West Greenland. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 61:274-286. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icesjms.2003.12.004


Bailleul, F., Lesage, V., Power, M., Doidge, D.W. and Hammill, M.O. 2012. Differences in diving and movement patterns in two groups of beluga whales in a changing Arctic environment reveal discrete populations. Endangered Spec. Res. 17:27-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr00420


Boltunov, A. N. and Belikov, S.E. 2002. Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) of the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:149-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2842


COSEWIC 2004. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. ix + 70 pp.


Dahl, T., Lydersen, C., Kovacs, K.M., Falk-Petersen, S., Sargent, J., Gjertz, I. and Gulliksen, B. 2000. Fatty acid composition of the blubber in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Polar Biol. 23:401-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003000050461


de March, B.G.E. and Postma, L.D. 2003. Molecular genetic stock discrimination of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) hunted in Eastern Hudson Bay, Northern Quebec, Hudson Strait, and Sanikiluaq (Belcher Islands), Canada, and comparisons to adjacent populations. Arctic 56:111-124.


de March, B.G.E., Maiers, L.D. and Friesen, M.K. 2002. An overview of genetic relationships of Canadian and adjacent populations of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) with emphasis on Baffin Bay and Canadian eastern Arctic populations. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:17-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2835


DFO 2002b. Underwater World – The Beluga. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Communications Directorate. Ottawa, ON.


DFO 2002a. Cumberland Sound Beluga. Stock Status Report E5-32. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, MB.


DFO 2002c. Northern Quebec (Nunavik) Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Stock Status Report E4-01. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Quebec Region, Mont-Joli, QC.


[DFO] Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2007. Development of a Closed Area in NAFO 0A to protect Narwhal Over-Wintering Grounds, including Deep-sea Corals. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Resp. 2007/002.


DFO. 2012. Recovery Strategy for the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) St. Lawrence Estuary population in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa. 88 pp + X pp.


Dietz, R., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Born, E. W. and Glahder, C. M. 1994. Occurrence of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) and white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in East Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland Bioscience 39:69-86.


Doniol-Valcroze, T, Hammill, M. O. and Lesage, V. 2011. Information on abundance and harvest of eastern Hudson Bay beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2010/121. iv + 13 p.


Doniol-Valcroze, T. and Hammill, M.O. 2011. Information on abundance and harvest of Ungava Bay beluga. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2011/126.


Ferguson, S.H., Higdon J., Chmelnitsky E.G. 2010. The Rise of Killer Whales as a Major Arctic Predator. In S.H. Ferguson et al. (eds.), A Little Less Arctic: Top Predators in the World’s 117 Largest Northern Inland Sea, Hudson Bay, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-9121-5_6,


Gjertz, I. and Wiig, Ø. 1994. Distribution and catch of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) at Svalbard. Meddelelser om Grønland Bioscience 39:93-97.


Hammill, M.O., Kingsley, M.C.S. and Lesage, V.. "Cancer in Beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary. (Correspondence)." Environmental Health Perspectives 111.2 (2003): A77+. Academic OneFile. Web. 24 Oct. 2012.


Hammill, M.O., Measures, L.N., Gosselin, J.-F. And Lesage, V. 2007. Lack of recovery in St. Lawrence Estuary beluga. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2007/26.


Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Acquarone, M. 2002. Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:191-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2844


Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Reeves, R.R. 1996. Evidence of a decline in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, abundance off West Greenland. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 53:61-72.


Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Rosing-Asvid, A. 2002. Catch statistics for belugas in West Greenland 1862 to 1999. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:127-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2840


Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Teilmann, J. 1994. Growth, reproduction, age structure and feeding habits of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland waters. Meddelelser om Grønland Bioscience 39:195-212.


Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Guldborg Hansen, R., Westdal, K., Reeves, R.R. and Mosbech, A. 2013. Narwhals and seismic exploration: Is seismic noise increasing the risk of ice entrapments? Biol. Cons. 158:50-54.


Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K.L., Borchers, D., Marques, T.A., Stern, H. and Simon, M. 2010. The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland. Polar Res. 29:198-208.


Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Richard, P., Dietz, R., Laidre, K.L., Orr, J. and Schmidt, H.C. 2003. An estimate of the fraction of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Canadian High Arctic that winter in West Greenland. Polar Biol. 26:318-326.


Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Richard, P., Ramsay, M. and Akeeagok, S. 2002. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:143-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2841


Higdon, J.W. and Ferguson, S.H. 2009. Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century. Ecol. Appl. 19:1365-1375.


Hobbs, K.E., Muir, D.C.G., Michaud, R., Beland, P., Letcher, R.J. and Norstrom, R.J. 2003. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 1994-1998. Env. Poll. 122:291-302.


Innes, S. and Stewart, R.E.A. 2002. Population size and yield of Baffin Bay beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) stocks. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:225-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2846


Innes, S., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laake, J.L., Laidre, K.L., Cleator, H.J., Richard, P., and Stewart, R.E.A. 2002a. Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:169-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2843


Innes, S., Muir, D. C. G., Stewart, R. E. A., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Dietz, R. 2002b. Stock identity of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in Eastern Canada and West Greenland based on organochlorine contaminants in their blubber. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:51-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2837


Jefferson, T.A., Karkzmarski, L., Laidre, K., O’Corry-Crowe, G., Reeves, R., Rojas-Bracho, L., Secchi, E., Slooten, E., Smith, B.D., Wang, J.Y. and Zhou, K. 2012. Delphinapterus leucas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2


Kilabuk, P. 1998. A study of Inuit knowledge of the Southeast Baffin beluga. Report for the Southeast Baffin Beluga Management Committee. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Iqaluit, NT. 74 p.


Kingsley, M. C. S. 2002. Status of the belugas of the St. Lawrence estuary, Canada. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:239-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2847


Koski, W.R., Davis, R.A. and Finley, K.J. 2002. Distribution and abundance of Canadian High Arctic belugas, 1974-1979. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:87-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2839


Laidre, K.L., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Jørgensen, O.A. and Treble, M.A. 2004. Deep-ocean predation by a high Arctic cetacean. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 61:430-440.


Lydersen, C., Martin, A.R., Kovacs, K.M. and Gjertz, I. 2001. Summer and autumn movements of white whales Delphinapterus leucas in Svalbard, Norway. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 219:265-274.


Lydersen, C., Nøst, O.A., Lovell, P., McConnell, B.J., Gammelsrød, T., Hunter, C., Fedak, M.A. and Kovacs, K.M. 2002. Salinity and temperature structure of a freezing Arctic fjord – monitored by white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Geophys. Res. Let. 29: 2119, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015462


Martineau D, Lemberger K, Dallaire A, Labelle P, Lipscomb TP, Michel P, et al. Cancer in wildlife, a case study: beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. Environ Health Perspect 110:285-292


McQuinn, I.H., Lesage, V., Carrier, D., Larrivee, G., Samson, Y., Chartrand, S., Michaud, R. and Theriault, J. 2011. A threatened beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) population in the traffic lane: Vessel-generated noise characteristics of the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park, Canada. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130:3661-3673.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission 2000. Report of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee Working Group on the Population Status of Narwhal and Beluga in the North Atlantic. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 1999. NAMMCO, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 153-188. 


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission 2002a. Report of the Joint meeting of the Scientific Committee Working Group on the Population Status of Narwhal and Beluga in the North Atlantic and the Scientific Working Group of the Joint Commission on the Conservation and Management. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 2001. NAMMCO, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 213-248.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission 2002b. Greenland Progress Report on Marine Mammal Research. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 2001. NAMMCO, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 279-282.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2003. Greenland Progress Report on Marine Mammal Research. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 2002. NAMMCO, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 291-295.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2004. Greenland Progress Report on Marine Mammal Research. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 2003. NAMMCO, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 319-322.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2005a. Report of the twelfth meeting of the Scientific Committee. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 2004. NAMMCO, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 207-278.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2005b. Report of the thirteenth meeting of the Scientific Committee. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 2005. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 161-310.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2009. Norway Progress report on marine mammal research in 2006 and 2007. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 2007-8. NAMMCO, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 337-366.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2010. Report of the sixteenth meeting of the Scientific Committee. In: NAMMCO Annual Report 2009. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway, pp. 237-456.


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2012a. Report of the nineteenth meeting of the Scientific Committee


[NAMMCO] North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2012b. Report Of The NAMMCO Expert Group Meeting To Assess The Hunting Methods For Small Cetaceans


Noest, O.A., Lovell, P., McConnell, B.J., Gammelsroed, T., Hunter, C., Fedak, M.A., and Kovacs, K.M. 2002. Salinity and temperature structure of a freezing Arctic fjord – monitored by white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Geophysical Res. Let. 29:34-1 – 34-4.


O’Corry-Crowe, G., Lydersen, C., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Hansen, L., Mukhametov, L.M., Dove, O. and Kovacs, K.M. 2010. Population genetic structure and evolutionary history of North Atlantic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from West Greenland, Svalbard and the White Sea. Polar Biol. 33:1179–1194.


Palsbøll, P. J., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Bérubé, M. 2002. Analysis of mitochondrial control region nucleotide sequences from Baffin Bay belugas (Delphinapterus leucas): detecting pods or sub-populations? NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4:39-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2836


Richard, P.R. 2005. An estimate of the Western Hudson Bay beluga population size in 2004. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2005/17. Available at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/CSAS/Csas/DocREC/2005/RES2005_017_e.pdf


Richard, P.R., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Orr, J.R., Dietz, R. and Smith, T.G. 2001. Summer and autumn movements and habitat use by belugas in the Canadian High Arctic and adjacent areas. Arctic 54:207-222.


Sejersen, F. 2001. Hunting and management of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Greenland: Changing strategies to cope with new national and local interests. Arctic 54:431-443.


Stewart, R.E.A., Campana, S.E., Jones, C.M. and Stewart, B.E. 2006. Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) age estimates. Can. J. Zool. 84:1840-1852.


Turgeon, J., Duchesne, P., Colbeck, G.J., Postma, L.D. and Hammill, M.O. 2012. Spatiotemporal segregation among summer stocks of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) despite nuclear gene flow: implication for the endangered belugas in eastern Hudson Bay (Canada). Conserv. Genet. 13:419-433.


Wenzel, G.W. 1995. Ningiqtuq: Resource sharing and generalized reciprocity in Clyde River, Nunavut. Arctic Anthropology 32:43-60.