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Abend, A.G. and Smith, T.D. 1997. Differences in ratios of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen between long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), and their primary prey in the western North Atlantic. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea J. Mar. Sci. 54(3):500-503. doi:  

Abend, A.G. and Smith, T.D. 1999. Review of distribution of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean. NOAA/NMFS Tech. Memo. NMFS–NE 117. 22 pp. 

Aguilar, A., Jover, L. and Borrell, A. 1993. Hetergeneities in organochlorine profiles of Faroese longfinned pilot whales: indication of segregation between pods? Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (special issue 14):359-368.

Aguilar de Soto, N., Johnson, M.P., Madsen, P.T., Diaz, F., Domínguez, I., Brito, A. ad Tyack, P. 2008. Cheetahs of the deep sea: deep foraging sprints in short-finned pilot whales off Tenerife (Canary Islands). Journal of Animal Ecology. 77:936–947. doi:

[AMAP] Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. 2004. AMAP assessment 2002 – Persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic. Oslo, Norway. 310pp. Available at

[AMAP] Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. 2005. AMAP assessment 2002: Heavy metals in the Arctic. Oslo, Norway. 265 pp. Available at

Amos, B., Barrett, J. and Dover, G.A. 1991. Breeding behaviour of pilot whales revealed by DNA fingerprinting. Heredity. 67(1):49-55.

Amos, B., Bloch, D., Desportes, G., Majerus, T.M.O., Bancroft, D.R., Barrett, J.A. and Dover, G.A. 1993a. A review of molecular evidence relating to social organisation and breeding system in the long-finned pilot whale. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (special issue 14):209-217.

Amos, B., Schlotterer , C., and Tauz , D. 1993b. Social structure of pilot whales revealed by analytical DNA profiling. Science. 260:670–672.

Andersen, L.W. 1990. The population structure and sex determination of the long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, and the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. Ph.D thesis. Aarhus University, Denmark. 50pp. 

Andersen, L.W. 1993. Further studies on the population structure of the long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, of the Faroe Islands. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (special issue 14):219-231.

Andersen, L.W. and Siegismund, H.R. 1994. Genetic evidence for migration of males between schools of the long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, of the Faroe Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 105:1-7. URL:

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Antunes, R.,  Kvadsheim, P.H., Lam, F.P.A., Tyack, P.L., Thomas, L., Wensveen, P.J. and Miller, P.J.O. 2014. High thresholds for avoidance of sonar by free-ranging long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). Mar. Pollut. Bull.

Aoki, K., Sakai, M., Millerc, P.J.O, Visserd, F., Sato, K. 2013. Body contact and synchronous diving in long-finned pilot whales. Behavioural Processes. 99: 12– 20. doi:

Arnold, G.P. 1979. Squid - A review of their biology and fisheries. Laboratory leaflet nr. 48. Lowestoft. 37pp.

Balbuena, J.A., Aznar, F.J., Fernández, M. and Raga, J.A. 1995. Parasites as indicators of social structure and stock identity of marine mammals. p. 133-139. In: Blix, A.S., Walløe, L. and Ulltang, Ø. (eds.); Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. 720pp.

Balbuena, J.A. and Raga, J.A. 1991. Ecology and host relationships of the whale-louse Isocyamus delphini (Amphipoda: Cyamidae) parasitizing long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) off the Faroe Islands (Northeast Atlantic). Can. J. Zool. 69:141-145. doi:

Balbuena, J.A. and Raga, J.A. 1993. Intestinal helminth communities of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) off the Faroe Islands. Parasitology. 106:327-333. doi:

Balbuena, J.A. and Raga, J.A. 1994. Intestinal helminths as indicators of segregation and social structure of pods of long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) off the Faroe Islands. Can. J. Zool. 72:443-448. doi:

Baird, R.W., Borsani, J.F., Hanson, M.B. and Tyack, P. 2002. Diving and night-time behaviour of long-finned pilot whales in the Ligurian Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 237:301-305.

Bernard, H. J. and Reilly, S. B. 1999. Pilot whales Globicephala Lesson, 1828. In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, Vol. 6: The second book of dolphins and the porpoises, pp. 245-279. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.

Bloch. D. 1998. A review of marine mammals observed caught or stranded over the last two centuries in Faroese Waters. Shetland Sea Mamm. Rep. 1997:15-37.

Bloch, D. 2007. Grindehvalen og Færøernes grindefangst. Føroya Náttúrugripasavn, Tórshavn Færøerne. 52pp.

Bloch, D. 1994. Pilot whales in the North Atlantic. Age, growth and social structure in Faroese grinds of the long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas. Doctoral dissertation, Lund University, Sweden.

Bloch, D. and Lastein, L. 1993. Morphometric segregation and long-finned pilot whale in the eastern and western North Atlantic. Ophelia. 38:55-68. doi:

Bloch, D., and Lastein, L. 1995. Modelling the school structure of pilot whales in the Faroe Islands, 1832-1994. p. 499-508. In: Blix, A.S., Walløe, L. and Ulltang, U. (eds.). Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. 720pp.

Bloch, D., Desportes, G., Hoydal, K. and Jean, P. 1990. Pilot whaling in the Faroe Islands: July 1986–July 1988. North Atlantic Studies. 2:36-44.

Bloch, D., Desportes, G., Mouritsen, R., Skaaning, S. and Stefansson, E. 1993a. An introduction to studies on the ecology and status of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) off the Faroe Islands, 1986-1988. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (Special Issue 14):1-32.

Bloch, D., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Stefansson, E., Mikkelsen, B., Ofstad, L.H., Dietz, R. and Andersen, L. 2003. Short-term movements of long-finned pilot whales Globicephala melas around the Faroe Islands. Wildl. Biol. 9:47-58.

Bloch, D., Lockyer, C. and Zachariassen, M. 1993b. Age and growth parameters of the long-finned pilot whale off the Faroe Islands. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (Special Issue 14):163-208.

Bloch, D., Zachariassen, M. and Zachariassen, P. 1993c. Some external characters of the long-finned pilot whale off the Faroe Islands and a comparison with the short-finned pilot whale. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (Special Issue 14):117-135.

Borrel, A. 1993. PCB and DDTs in blubber of cetaceans from the northeastern North Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 16:146-151. doi:

Borrel, A. and Aguilar, A. 1993. DDT and PCB pollution in blubber and muscle of long-finned pilot whales from the Faroe Islands. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (special issue 14):351-358.

Borrell, A., Bloch, D. and Desportes, G. 1995. Age trends and reproductive transfer of organochlorine compounds in long-finned pilot whales from the Faroe Islands. Environmental Pollution. 88:283-92.

Buckland, S.T., Bloch, D., Cattanach, K.L., Gunnlaugsson, T., Hoydal, K., Lens, S. and Sigurjónsson, J. 1993. Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-1987 and NASS-89 data. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (Special Issue 14):33-50.

Bustamante, P., Caurant, F., Fowler, S.W. and Miramand, P. 1998. Cephalopods as a vector for the transfer of cadmium to top marine predators in the north-east Atlantic Ocean. Sci. Total Environ. 220:71–80.

Canadas, A. and Sagarminaga, R. 2000. The northeastern Alboran Sea, an important breeding and feeding ground for long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Mammal Sci. 16(3):513-529.

Caurant, F., Amiard-Triquet, C. and Amiard J.-C. 1993. Factors influencing the accumulation of metals in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) off the Faroe Islands. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn. (special issue 14):369-390.

Caurant F, Amiard-Triquet C. 1995. Cadmium contamination in pilot whales Globicephala melas: source and potential hazard to the species. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 30:207–10. doi:

Caurant F, Amiard JC, Amiard-Triquet C, Sauriau PG. 1994. Ecological and biological factors controlling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Se, Zn) in delphinids Globicephala melas from the North Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 103:207–19.

Caurant, F., Navarro, M. and Amiard, J.C. 1996. Mercury in pilot whales: possible limits to the detoxification process. Sci. Total Environ. 186:95–104. doi:

Choi, A.L., Weihe, P., Budtz-Jørgensen, E., Jørgensen, P.J., Salonen, J.K., Tuomainen, T.-P., Murata, K., Nielsen, H.P., Petersen, M.S., Askham, J. and Grandjean, P. 2009. Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whaling men. Environ Health Perspect. 117:367–372. doi:

Cox, T.M., Ragen, T.J., Read, A.J., Vos, E., Baird, R. W., Balcomb, K.,  Barlow, J., Caldwell, J., Cranford, T., Crum, L., D‟Amico, A., D‟Spain, G., Fernández, A., Finneran, J., Gentry, R., Gerth, W., Gulland, F., Hildebrand, J., Houser, D., Hullar, T., Jepson, P. D., Ketten, D., MacLeod, C. D., Miller, P., Moore, S., Mountain, D., Palka, D., Ponganis, P., Rommel, S., Rowles, T., Taylor, B., Tyack, P., Wartzok, D., Gisiner, R., Mead, J. and Benner, L. 2006. Understanding the impacts of anthropogenic sound on beaked whales. J. Cetacean Res. Manage. 7(3):177–187.

Curé, C., Antunes, R., Samarra, F., Alves, A., Visser, F., Kvadsheim, P. and Miller, P.J.O. 2012. Pilot whales attracted to killer whale sounds: acoustically-mediated interspecific interactions in cetaceans. PLoS ONE. 7(12).e52201. doi:  

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Dam, M., and D. Bloch. 2000. Screening of mercury and persistent organochlorine pollutants in long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) in the Faroe Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 40:1090–9. doi:

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Desportes, G. 1990. Pilot whale research in the Faroe Islands: presentation and preliminary results. North Atl. Stud. 2(1+2):47-54.

Desportes, G., Andersen, L.W., Aspholm, P.E., Bloch, D. and Mouritsen, R. 1994a. A note about a male-only pilot whale school observed in Faroe Islands. Fróðskaparrit 40 (1992):27-33.

Desportes, G., Andersen, L.W. and Bloch, D. 1994b. Variation in foetal and postnatal sex ratios in long-finned pilot whales. Ophelia 39:183-196. doi:

Desportes, G., Bloch, D., Andersen, L.W. and Mouritsen, R. 1994c. The international research programme on the ecology and status of the long-finned pilot whale off the Faroe Islands: Presentation, results and reference. Fróðskaparrit 40 (1992):9-29.

Desportes, G. and Mouritsen, R. 1993. Preliminary results on the diet of long-finned pilot whales off the Faroe Islands. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (special issue 14):305-324.

Desportes, G., Saboureau, M. and Lacroix, A. 1994d. Growth-related changes in testicular mass and plasma testosterone concentrations in long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas. J. Repr. Fert. 102:237-244. ­doi:

Desportes, G., Saboureau, M. and Lacroix, A. 1993. Reproductive maturity and seasonality of male long-finned pilot whales, off the Faroe Islands. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. (special issue 14):233-262.

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Fullard, K.J., Early, G., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Bloch, D., RosingAsvid, A., and Amos, W. 2000. Population structure of longfinned pilot whales in the North Atlantic: a correlation with sea surface temperature? Mol. Ecol. 9:949–958. doi:

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