Blue whale

Updated: August 2019

The blue whale is a cosmopolitan species found in all the major oceans of the world. It has a tendency to remain in deep waters. This is the largest of the baleen whales, and biggest animal to ever have lived on Earth.

This whale appears lighter in colouration than most other large whales and has a bluish grey mottled pigmentation with light and dark patches. The average size of blue whales in the Northern Hemisphere is between 50 and 150 tonnes and 24-28 m, with females slightly larger than males. Their spout can reach up to 12 m, and their vocalizations can be heard for hundreds of kilometres. Despite their size, they feed almost exclusively on tiny krill.

© Kjell A. Fagerheim/Institute of Marine Research


More than 3,000 blue whales in the Central and Eastern North Atlantic and increasing (NAMMCO, 2018b; Pike et al., 2019).


Most frequent around west and north Iceland, rarer off Jan Mayen and Svalbard and along the coast of Norway and mainland Europe. Rare in the West Atlantic.


Was hunted almost to extinction up until the mid-1900s, last catches off Spain in 1978. Is now protected globally.


International management regime by NAMMCO and the International Whaling Commission.

Listed as Endangered but increasing in the global IUCN Red List. There are clear indications of an increase in the Central North Atlantic, and the blue whale is listed as Vulnerable on both the Norwegian and Icelandic national red lists.

© Kjell A. Fagerheim/Institute of Marine Research

© Kelly Houle/NOAA Fisheries

Scientific name:  Balaenoptera musculus

Faroese: Royður
Greenlandic: Tunnulik
Icelandic: Steypireyður
Norwegian: Blåhval

Danish: Blåhval
English: Blue whale
Swedish: Sillval

Three subspecies: B. musculus intermedia (Antarctic waters, largest), B. musculus musculus (Northern Hemisphere) and B. musculus brevicauda (Subantarctic zone of the Southern Indian Ocean and Southwestern Pacific Ocean, the “pygmy blue whale”).


At least 80-90 years, probably longer


50-150 tonnes, 24-28 m, but larger in the Southern Hemisphere. Females are slightly larger than males


One calf every 2-3 years from an age of about 10 years


Not well documented, but some migration between high-latitude feeding grounds in summer and lower-latitude breeding grounds in winter occur


Lunge feed almost exclusively on euphausiids (krill)

General characteristics

© Richard Holt/NOAA Fisheries

The blue whale is the largest of the baleen whales, and the biggest animal to ever have lived on Earth. Its blow is characteristically tall at 10-12 m high, and denser and broader than that of the fin whale. Blue whales have a bluish grey mottled pigmentation with light and dark patches giving them a lighter appearance than most other large whales. These patches are unique to each individual and is therefore used as a basis for photo identification. The flippers are long and bluntly pointed and can reach lengths up to 15 % of the total body length. The dorsal fin is proportionally smaller than in other whales of this family, and it is located far back on the body. When the whale surfaces, the dorsal fin becomes visible well after the blow.

Blue whales are also more tapered and elongated than other rorqual whales and have a broad, U-shaped head. The shoulder and blow hole region are raised more out of the water than other rorquals when surfacing, and less than 20% of blue whales in the North Atlantic raise their fluke when diving (Sears & Perrin, 2018). Blue whale baleen are black with over 800 plates, and 55-68 throat grooves extend from the throat to the navel.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the average size of blue whales is between 50 and 150 metric tonnes and 24-28 m, with females slightly larger than males. The Antarctic blue whale is larger, reaching up to 32.6 m in length and weighing up to 190 tonnes.

© Kjell Arne Fagerheim/Institute of Marine Research

Did you know?

The blue whale is the largest animal to ever have lived on Earth, even surpassing the largest known dinosaur, the Argentinosaurus huinculensis. The blue whale found in the Northern Hemisphere, which is smaller than the Antarctic blue whale, can weigh as much as 25 African elephants. The tongue alone weighs around 2.7 metric tonnes, which is as much as an entire African forest elephant.

Blue whale drone footage

Blue whale next to a stand up paddle boarder


© Marjorie Foster/NOAA Fisheries

Blue whale longevity is thought to be at least 80-90 years, probably longer. Photo identification studies have confirmed ages of more than 40 years (Sears & Perrin, 2018; Øien, 2019).

The age of the blue whale, like for other baleen whales, is read on the yearly depot that can be seen on the waxy ear plug. Blue whale ear plugs are larger than most other balaenopterid whale plugs.


Blue whale females reach sexual maturity when they are about 10 years of age, males when they are a couple of years older. Little is known about blue whale mating rituals, but rigorous surface displays of up to 50 minutes have been observed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence from summer into autumn, some lasting for as long as five weeks (Sears & Perrin, 2018). Blue whales have also been observed racing each other, most likely as a form of male competition to impress females (Torres, 2016). The mating period is in autumn, and females give birth every 2-3 years in winter, after a 10-12 months gestation period. The calves are 2-3 tonnes and 6-7 m at birth. They drink up to 200 litres of milk a day, giving them a daily weight gain of more than 100 kg. Calves are weaned at approximately 16 m and 6-8 months of age.

Racing blue whales

Nursing calf

Possible courtship

Nursing calf

A hybrid of fin and blue whale at the Icelandic whaling station © Marine Research Institute, Iceland

No specific breeding ground have been discovered in any ocean, but mothers and calves are sighted regularly in the Gulf of California, Mexico in late winter and spring (Sears & Perrin, 2018). There does not seem to be any area in the Northeast Atlantic where mothers have been observed with calves.

Several hybrids of fin and blue whales, some pregnant, have been documented and some have been genetically confirmed (Árnason et al., 1991; Spilliaert et al., 1991; Bérubé & Aguilar, 1998; Cipriano & Palumbi, 1999; Berube et al., 2017). In 2013 a fin/blue whale hybrid was caught in the Irminger Sea west of Iceland, and another one was caught in 2018. The one caught in 2018 has also been genetically confirmed as a hybrid (MRFI 2018, see also the section on Hunting and Utilisation).

Did you know?

The blue whale penis is listed in the Guinness World Records as the longest penis of any animal. The reported average length varies between 2.4 and 3.0 m (Long, 2012), with the average diameter being 30-36 cm. You can actually see the 170 cm front tip of one at the Icelandic Phallological Museum in Reykjavík.


Krill © Jamie Hall

The blue whale requires about 1.5 million kilocalories a day (Ellis, 1991), eating up to a metric tonne per feeding session and 3.6 tonnes per day (NOAA, n.d.). It appears to feed almost exclusively on euphausiids (krill) (Mizroch et al., 1984; Ellis, 1991; Sears & Perrin, 2018; Øien, 2019). In the North Atlantic specifically the krill species Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa spp. are consumed (Visser et al., 2011; McQuinn et al., 2016). The feeding ecology of blue whales in Icelandic waters is not known (Vikingsson et al., 2015).

When high concentrations of prey are encountered, blue whales feed by lunging and gulping large mouthfuls, expelling water through the baleen when closing their mouth (Sears & Perrin, 2018). They feed both at the surface and at depths, mostly during daytime, usually at depths below 100 m (Sears & Perrin, 2018). Blue whales feeding down to 300 m have been recorded off California, as well as progressively shallower feeding dives after dark, with a shift into non-feeding dives during the night (Calambokidis et al., 2008).

Large whales exhibit different feeding strategies, with some whales lunging for food, while others “cruise along” with their mouths open, sifting out water as they go. The blue whale is a lunge-feeder, meaning that they “attack” patches of prey at speed while opening their mouths, resulting in an instant slowing of their speed. Out of 6 identified rorqual surface lunge-feeding behaviours, blue whales were shown to exhibit 4: left and right lateral lunges as well as ventral lunges clockwise and counter-clockwise. No blue whales showed oblique (upright body orientation at oblique angles) lunges or vertical lunges. Evidence of behavioural lateralization, with a preference for right-sided lunges, have also been found. Blue whales also exhibited less diversity in behaviours at depth, most likely due to the shorter available time to feed when using more energy-demanding behaviours at depth (Kot et al., 2014).

© Lisa Conge/NOAA Fisheries

Underwater lunges have been documented by data tags and underwater cameras attached to the whales.  These behaviours include lunges into dense aggregations of krill during characteristic series of vertical movement at depth and 360° rolling lunge-feeding manoeuvres to both position their lower jaws and visually process the prey field (Calambokidis et al., 2008; Goldbogen et al., 2012). You can see footage from this below.

Surface lunge feeding

Underwater barrel rolls

Surface lunge feeding

Blue whale faeces

Did you know?

Blue whales can consume up to 3,600 kg of food per day, constituting about 40 million individual krill.


The blue whale is seen most commonly alone, sometimes in pairs. A maximum group size of three was observed during the 2015 Icelandic and Faroese NASS survey, with 81% of the sightings composed of single individuals (Pike et al., 2019). Concentrations of more than 50 can, however, be found spread out in areas of high productivity (Sears & Perrin, 2018).

© Peter Duley/NOAA Fisheries


Generally, the blue whale stays under water for 8-15 minutes at a time, but diving times of up to 36 minutes have been documented. Normal swimming speed when feeding is between 3 and 6 km/hr, and travel speed is between 5 and 30 km/hr (Øien, 2019).

Blue whales have been shown to exhibit extended gliding sequences, which would also decrease the energetic cost of diving compared to actively swimming. With increased dive depth, the whales displayed longer gliding sequences, exceeding 78% of the descent period for the deepest dives recorded during this study at 88 m. Stroke frequency on the initial dive was 6-10 per minute (Williams et al., 2000).

Deployments of Crittercam in the Southern California Bight revealed consistent feeding at depths of 250-300 m, deeper than has been previously reported for blue whales (Calambokidis et al., 2008).


The majority of blue whale song is of such low frequency that it is undetectable to the human ear (Sears & Perrin, 2018). Blue whales from most regions emit long, multi-part 15-40 Hz phrases, with phrase durations varying from 18 to 60 seconds and phrase periods from circa 70 to 120 seconds (Mellinger & Clark, 2003). They vocalize regularly throughout the year, with peaks from midsummer into the winter months. At 188 dB, blue whale sounds are among the lowest and loudest sounds by any animal, and they can be heard for hundreds, if not even thousands, of kilometres under optimal conditions (Sears & Perrin, 2018).  Blue whale song has been categorised into 9 types, with the best-known sounds from the Pacific Ocean (4 types), and only one song type in the North Atlantic. However, some believe there are at least 10 types of blue whale song, and a decline in tonal frequency has also been found, with the best documented song type at a frequency 31% lower than it was in the 1960s (McDonald et al., 2006, 2009).

A low-intensity, very low-frequency sound following a tonal, FM downsweep (9 and 11 Hz) has been recorded in blue whales from both the North Atlantic and Northeastern Pacific (Mellinger & Clark, 2003). There are distinct differences in sounds produced by blue whales between regions, and the sounds can thus be used to delineate the population structure of these widely dispersed and nomadic whales (Mellinger & Clark, 2003; McDonald et al., 2006; Sears & Perrin, 2018).

Listen to blue whale vocalisations from the links below:


Being so large, the blue whale has few natural enemies. The killer whale is the principal predator and is known to work in groups to attack blue whales. As much as 25% of photo-identified blue whales off Mexico in the North Pacific carry scars originating from killer whale teeth on their tails, although there is little evidence of these kinds of attacks in the North Atlantic or Southern Ocean (Sears & Perrin, 2018). In spring 2019, killer whales were observed attacking and killing pygmy blue whales on two occasions off the coast of Australia.

Killer whales attacking blue whale in Monterey Bay, California

Other natural sources of mortality

Ice entrapments

40 blue whales have been killed by ice entrapments in the Northwest Atlantic since 1974, with whales being crushed, stranded or suffocated (Gomez et al., 2017; Sears & Perrin, 2018). In 2014, a total of 9 whales were killed after getting trapped in shifting ice in the Gulf of Maine, posing a significant loss to an already small population (“9 blue whales die after getting trapped off Newfoundland’s coast”, 2014). There does not seem to be any records of ice entrapments of this scale in the Northeast Atlantic.

Worldwide distribution

© Peter Duley/NOAA Fisheries

The blue whale is a cosmopolitan species found in all the major oceans of the world, with a tendency of remaining in deep waters. The population structure is not clear, and both three and four large geographic regions have been suggested. The three regions currently accepted are the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Southern Ocean, while it is still unclear whether the blue whales found in the Northern Indian Ocean constitute their own population (Sears & Perrin, 2018).

Distribution in the North Atlantic


Historical whaling information indicates distributions around Svalbard and the Northern Norwegian coast, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetland, Ireland, the UK and Eastern Canada, off Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Sigurjónsson & Gunnlaugsson, 1990). Only a few blue whales were caught off Spain and Portugal, although the last recorded catches were six whales off Spain in 1978 (Allison, 2017).

American whalers in the 18th and 19th century also reported encounters with blue whales across the southern half of the North Atlantic, in tropical and warm temperature latitudes, during winter months. The summer encounters showed a narrower and more northerly distribution. However, these logbook entries only cover the extent of the whaling areas, and for instance the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Iceland were seldom visited by American whalers (Reeves et al., 2004).


The deep water and offshore preferences of blue whales and their low abundance have made them difficult to observe and study. They have only been studied intensely along the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and seasonal occurrence and movements elsewhere in the North Atlantic are poorly known (Reeves et al., 2004).

Sightings and acoustic data show a wide-ranging use of the North Atlantic, with blue whales moving over great distances and being observed from north of Disko Bay and off Svalbard in the north to south of Bermuda  and off the Cape Verde Islands (e.g., Reeves et al., 2004; Sears et al., 2005, MICS, n.d.; NAMMCO, 2017b). See also below under Migration.

Blue whale distribution is probably dictated by food requirements and availability, as well as sea ice, and, to a lesser extent, predation risks (Lesage et al., 2018; Sears & Perrin, 2018). Sea surface temperature, regional concentrations of chlorophyll a and ocean depth provided the greatest contributions to a blue whale species distribution model built by Gomez et al. (2017).

© Allison Henry/NOAA Fisheries

Central and East Atlantic

The largest aggregation of blue whales in the North Atlantic is found around Iceland; otherwise, they are rare in the Northeast Atlantic. In recent years blue whales have been sighted regularly around Svalbard and Jan Mayen, but with too few sightings to estimate abundance from the four series of Norwegian mosaic surveys done since 1996 (Pike et al., 2009, 2019; Øien, 2009, 2019; Leonard & Øien, 2019a,b,c,d).

Between 1987 and 2001, the increase in blue whale abundance was higher in the northeast than in the west of Iceland (Pike et al., 2009), indicating a northward shift in relative distribution. This was also consistent with the experiences of whale watching companies in Iceland and photo-identification studies showing that at least some of the whales previously found in the west had moved to the northeast (Vikingsson et al., 2015). During the Icelandic and Faroese shipboard surveys in 2015, blue whale sightings were concentrated to the north and west of Iceland, particularly off the Eastern coast of Greenland, but uncommonly in the eastern half of the area (Pike et al., 2019).

West Atlantic

In the summer, blue whales are sighted in Disko Bay, and 2016 was the first year with consistent sightings all summer (NAMMCO, 2017b).

Four important feeding and socializing areas have been identified off Eastern Canada: the lower St. Lawrence Estuary and north-western Gulf of St. Lawrence, the shelf waters south and southwest of Newfoundland, the Mecatina Trough area and the continental shelf edge of Nova Scotia (Lesage et al. 2018).

Blue whales are also detected offshore in the New York Bight from January to March (Muirhead et al., 2018).

Did you know?

The blue whale’s scientific name is Balaenoptera musculusBalaenoptera, the genus name, comes from Latin “balaena” (whale) and Ancient Greek “pteron” (fin). The specific name, musculus, is Latin for “muscle”, but it can also be interpreted as “little mouse”. It is highly likely that Carl Linnaeus, who first described the blue whale scientifically, was well aware of this double meaning of the name he gave it.


The blue whale undertakes extensive north-south migrations each year (Mizroch et al., 1984, Heide-Jørgensen et al., 2001; Sears et al., 2005; Pike et al., 2009, 2019). Blue whales are usually present in the northern areas of the North Atlantic only during the summer months (Pike et al., 2009), and appear to depart from northern areas earlier in autumn than fin or humpback whales (Pike et al. 2019).

Memory appears to play an important role in the movement decisions of blue whales, which tend to go to areas where they have experienced plenty of food over several seasons (Abrahms et al. 2019). Blue whales have been shown to forage while they migrate, contradictory to the common belief that these animals fast during this period (Silva et al. 2013).

Central and East Atlantic

© Kjell A. Fagerheim/Institute of Marine Research

Whales tagged off Svalbard and East Greenland have been tracked south to Iceland (Heide-Jørgensen et al., 2001; NAMMCO, 2017b, 2018a), moving through the Denmark Strait.

The area southwest of Ireland might be part of the migration route from high latitudes in summer to winter feeding areas in the Northwest African upwelling zones (Baines et al., 2017). Blue whales are sighted frequently in the Azores during spring and early summer and whales tagged here have been tracked almost up to Iceland (Silva et al. 2014, NAMMCO, 2017b). One individual has also been identified both off Mauritania and Iceland (Sears et al., 2005).

West Atlantic

A seasonal shift in Baffin Bay – Davis Strait from a winter dominance of Arctic cetaceans to a summer dominance of temperate species like the blue whale has been observed since the 18th century. Blue whales were reported as moving into Greenlandic waters (up to 76ºN) in August-September and disappearing from Baffin Bay – Davis Strait by late November (Laidre & Heide-Jørgensen, 2012).

The blue whale is known to frequent the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the summer and the eastern Scotian Shelf between January and November (e.g. Gomez et al., 2017). An extension of the summer feeding areas to autumn has been confirmed with evidence for new feeding areas off southern Newfoundland and Nova Scotia (Lesage et al., 2017). Two “transit corridors” were identified in eastern Canada: the Cabot and Honguedo Straits (Lesage et al., 2017). The wintering areas in the western Atlantic include the Gulf of St. Lawrence, southwest Newfoundland and the Scotian Shelf, as well as the Mid-Atlantic Bight off the US coast and warm, deep oceanic waters off this area.

© Peter Duley/NOAA Fisheries

Different timing of depletions of feeding stocks off Norway, Iceland and the Western Atlantic suggest that discrete feeding aggregations exist, with limited mixing between areas (Pike et al., 2009). Photo-identification studies also suggest at least two largely discrete blue whale populations in the North Atlantic (Sears et al., 2016). Despite the first St Lawrence (1984) to Azores (2014) match, match-comparison of Northwest Atlantic and Northeast Atlantic blue whale catalogues revealed no further matches between the East and the West (Sears et al., 2016).

The Northwest Atlantic population is centred in Eastern Canadian waters, ranging from West Greenland and south along North America to New England.

The Northeast Atlantic population is centred in Icelandic waters from Denmark Strait, Iceland, Jan Mayen, north to Spitsbergen to the Barents Sea in summer – extending South to Northwest Africa in winter, (e.g. Sears & Calambokidis, 2002; Sears et al., 2005, 2015; Sears & Perrin, 2018; MICS, n.d.).

Photo-identification studies have found no matches between whales photographed off the Azores, Spain or the Canary Islands and the rest of the North Atlantic (Sears et al. 2005), however, whales tagged off the Azores have been tracked almost up to Iceland (NAMMCO, 2017). One individual has been identified both off Mauritania and Iceland (Sears et al., 2005).


A reliable recent global population estimate is not available, but it is thought that mature blue whales number between 5,000 and 15,000 individuals globally, and between 10,000 and 25,000 in total. The population is increasing in the North Atlantic and Antarctic. The global mature population in 1926 was probably around 140,000 (Cooke, 2018).

Central & Eastern North Atlantic

The main aggregation of blue whales in the Central/Eastern North Atlantic is found off Western and Northern Iceland, where the population seems to be increasing (Pike et al., 2009, 2019), with the latest abundance estimate from 2015 numbering 3,000 (NAMMCO, 2018b; Pike et al., 2019).

The previous estimate was from 2001, as no abundance estimate was made during the 2007 surveys due to too few sightings. During the Icelandic and Faroese shipboard surveys in 2015, blue whale sightings were concentrated to the north and west of the survey area, particularly off the Eastern coast of Greenland, and uncommonly in the eastern half of the area (Pike et al., 2019).

The rate of increase of blue whales off Iceland and the Faroe Islands was 9% annually (95% CI 2% – 17%) for the period 1987-2001 (Pike et al., 2009). The uncorrected estimate from the 2015 survey is more than double that of the two previous ones, suggesting an increase in blue whale numbers in the entire area, and particularly to the west of Iceland (Pike et al., 2019).

Blue whale abundance estimates for the Central Eastern North Atlantic (the Icelandic and Faroese shipboard surveys), from Pike et al., 2009; NAMMCO, 2018b and Pike et al., 2019.

Year Estimate 95% CI Comment
1987 222 115-400 Uncorrected estimate.
1989 531 288-759 Uncorrected estimate.
1995 979 137-2,542 Best estimate of NASS 1987-2001. Uncorrected estimate.
2001 855 358-1,419 Negatively biased because the main blue whale concentration was most likely missed during the survey. Uncorrected estimate.
2015 3,000 1,377-6,534 Estimate corrected for perception bias.
Sightings of blue whales during the NASS 2015 Icelandic and Faroese ship survey

The blue whale continues to still be rare in the rest of the Northeast Atlantic, particularly around Svalbard and along the coast of Northern Norway (Pike et al., 2009), with too few sightings to estimate abundance from the four series of Norwegian mosaic survey since 1996 (Øien, 2009; Leonard & Øien, 2019a,b,c,d, in press). However, there were notable increases in numbers of blue whales seen in Svalbard between 2011 and 2015: 24 whales were sighted close to Svalbard and between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land during the Norwegian Sightings survey and the Arctic part of the Ecosystem survey in 2014 (NAMMCO, 2014, 2015), and during a survey in August 2017 blue whales were also seen north of Svalbard. There was only one blue whale sighting in the East Greenland 2015 survey (Hansen et al., 2019).

Sufficient data for abundance on blue whales were not obtained during the SCANS-III survey in European Atlantic waters in summer 2016 (Hammond et al., 2017). However, 16 blue whales were sighted during a survey over the Porcupine Seabight, southwest of Ireland in July to October 2013, exceeding the total number of blue whales previously reported from Irish waters (Baines et al., 2017).

Western North Atlantic

In the beginning of the millennium, the Western North Atlantic population was estimated to be in the low hundreds (Sears & Calambokidis, 2002), and almost 400 individuals had been identified in the Gulf of St. Lawrence by photo-identification studies (Ramp et al., 2006).

There are no estimates of current abundance and no means of assessing current population trends (COSEWIC, 2002, 2012). During the Canadian component of the multinational Trans North Atlantic Sightings Survey (TNASS) of Atlantic Canadian shelf waters in 2007, a total of only 16 blue whales were sighted (Lawson & Gosselin, 2007; COSEWIC, 2012). This was too few sightings to derive an abundance estimate, but the low number of sightings was consistent with previous data suggesting there are less than 250 mature individuals in this area (COSEWIC, 2002, 2012). There are also strong indications of a low calving rate and a low rate of recruitment to the population (COSEWIC 2002). Whales previously seen in Canada have not been seen recently, and calves are not observed here either (NAMMCO, 2017b).

No assessment has yet been performed for the blue whale in the North Atlantic, in part because of lack of abundance estimates for the whole area.

Blue whales are protected over their whole range. The Northeast Atlantic population seems to still be increasing (Pike et al., 2009, 2019; Cooke, 2018), while the situation of the northwest population is less clear.

The Greenlandic Red List (2007) lists the species as data deficient.

The Icelandic (2018) and Norwegian (2015) Red Lists both list the species as vulnerable.


The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) listed the blue whale as Endangered following an assessment in 2002 (COSEWIC 2002). This was re-examined and confirmed again in 2012 (COSEWIC 2012) and the species is also listed as endangered by the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA).

The International Whaling Commission (IWC) has not carried out a full assessment of the present status, but notes that “Encouragingly though, the available evidence suggests they are increasing, at least in the area of the central North Atlantic”.

The IUCN Red List classifies the species as Endangered globally, but increasing in those regions where the species was most depleted (the Antarctic and the North Atlantic) (Cooke 2018).

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has the species in its Appendix I, which lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants. This includes species threatened with extinction for which CITES prohibits international trade in specimens, with the exception of when the purpose of the import is not commercial.

The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) lists blue whale on its Appendix I, comprising migratory species that have been assessed as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range. “Parties that are a Range State to a migratory species listed in Appendix I shall endeavour to strictly protect them by: prohibiting the taking of such species, with very restricted scope for exceptions; conserving and where appropriate restoring their habitats; preventing, removing or mitigating obstacles to their migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them.”

© Peter Duley/NOAA Fisheries

Blue whales fall under the management of both the International Whaling Commission, and, since its inception in 1992, NAMMCO. NAMMCO provides management advice to the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland and Norway on the conservation status of blue whales.

Following severe depletion rates of blue whale populations during the first half of the 20th century, estimated at 89-97% of the 1926 population (Cooke, 2018), blue whales have been protected worldwide since 1966.


Blue whales are protected by all NAMMCO member countries, which were actually the first countries to initiate protection for blue whales:


A temporary, complete ban on whaling around Iceland for whales larger than common minke whales was declared in 1916, but whaling was resumed again in 1948. Hunting of blue whales was prohibited for good in Iceland in 1959 (Pike et al., 2009), 7 years before the international protection came into effect.


Whaling in Norway was temporarily banned for a short period from 1905, including blue whaling (Tønnessen and Johnsen, 1982).

In 1929 the Norwegian Whaling Act was drafted. It forbade the capture of right whales, females and calves of all species, and blue whales less than 18 m long. This led to the first International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946, also protecting right whales and females with calves, as well as the California grey whales. The Convention further set up the establishment of the International Whaling Commission, which cumulated in the IWC moratorium from 1982, pausing all commercial whaling from the 1985/1986 season onwards (Ellis, 1991).


Blue whales in Eastern Canada are managed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). The long-term goal of DFO’s recovery strategy for the blue whale is to reach a total of 1,000 mature individuals in the Northwest Atlantic. The strategies to reach this goal are research and monitoring, conservation, and public awareness and education. The objectives include defining and undertaking a long-term assessment, implementing control and monitoring measures for activities which could disrupt the population, and increasing knowledge concerning the principal threats (Beauchamp et al., 2009).

© Peter Duley/NOAA Fisheries


The blue whale was too swift and powerful for the 19th century whalers to hunt. Blue whales were thus not hunted on a regular basis until equipment allowed it; in particular the arrival of deck-mounted harpoon cannons. Modern blue whaling started in the North Atlantic in 1868, eventually spreading to other oceans when the Northeast Atlantic population had been severely depleted (Cooke, 2018). The greatest numbers were caught between the early 1900s to the late 1930s (Sears & Perrin, 2018), eventually depleting the populations. By the time the worldwide protection came into effect in 1966, the populations in both the North Atlantic and the Antarctic were estimated in the low hundreds (Cooke, 2018).

According to hunting logbooks, about 11,000 blue whales were killed in the North Atlantic (Sigurjónsson & Gunnlaugsson, 1990; Sears & Perrin, 2018), however, the total number was probably between 15,000 and 20,000, taking into consideration the substantial struck and lost rate pre-1916 as well as unspecified large whales (Cooke, 2018). The largest catches were taken off Iceland, Northern Norway and Svalbard.

Whaling efforts decreased in the North Atlantic as stocks were depleted, and whalers moved to the Southern Ocean. Following the 1966 worldwide protection, the blue whale hunt ceased. However, Spain was not a member of the IWC until 1979, and 15 blue whales were still hunted in Iberian waters between 1966 and 1978 (Covelo et al., 2017). Blue whales were also caught illegally by USSR fleets until 1972 (Cooke, 2018).


Blue whales have been protected worldwide since 1966, and no deliberate catch of blue whales has been recorded since 1978 (Cooke, 2018).

In July 2018, there was a “world uproar” when a whale caught by Iceland was speculated to be a blue whale. However, both preliminary assessments and thorough genetic testing proved that the whale in question was in fact a blue-fin hybrid (MFRI, 2018). The hybrid was taken off the Icelandic quota for fin whales, which in 2018 was set to 161.

The main threat to the blue whale has been overexploitation, but the species became globally protected in 1966. Anthropogenic activities which may affect blue whales can be divided into two main categories: habitat degradation and oceanographic changes.


A range of anthropogenic activities has the potential to degrade habitats important to blue whale survival, and may occur both when whales are present and absent. They include:

  • entanglement (e.g. in marine debris, fishing gear, etc)
  • physical injury and death from vessel collisions (service corridors and shipping lanes)
  • acoustic pollution with disturbance from low-frequency noise (vessels, seismic surveys, military activities)
  • changing water quality and pollution (e.g. runoff from agriculture, oil spills)
  • prey depletion due to over-harvesting
  • human harassment through whale watching programmes

The biggest threats for blue whales are listed as ship strikes, disturbance from increasing whale watching activity and noise (e.g. shipping and seismic surveys) (e.g. COSEWIC, 2002, 2012; Cooke, 2018). Priority monitoring areas for blue whales in the Northwest Atlantic have been identified, and these areas overlap with known shipping routes and sites for seismic surveys (Gomez et al., 2017).

© Kelly Houle/NOAA Fisheries


Incidental catches of blue whales in fisheries appear to be rare and entanglements of blue whales have not been reported in NAMMCO member countries.

However, there are reports from other areas. 12% of whales found in the Northwest Atlantic carry marks related to contact with fishing gear. However, few lethal entanglements have been reported (Sears & Perrin, 2018), one of these being an entangled blue whale in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in 2002. Identifying the source of scars is harder for blue whales from cold waters, as they often carry scars attributable to contact with ice (Cooke, 2018). In US waters, the first confirmed entangled blue whale was in 2015, and new entanglements were reported both in 2016 and 2017 (NOAA, 2018).

Ship strikes

Ship strikes fatal to whales first occurred late in the 1800s and remained infrequent until about 1950, when number and speeds of vessels increased. The most lethal or severe injuries are caused by ships 80 m or longer, or with ships travelling 14 kn or faster. The blue whale was one of the 11 species of great whales found to collide with ships, although there were comparatively fewer records for blue whales than for instance fin or humpback whales. This could, however, be due to the comparatively fewer numbers of blue whales (Laist et al., 2001).

Blue whales, as other whales in the fin whale family, exhibit negative buoyancy, thereby reducing energetic costs when diving (Goldbogen, Friedlaender et al., 2013; Williams et al., 2000). This negative buoyancy also means that these animals sink when dead, thus making recovery and identification harder. Strikes could even go unnoticed, especially by large vessels, as visibility immediately in front of the ships is more limited and the greater mass makes impacts less likely to be felt. There have even been instances with dead whales being carried on bows of ships not being detected until the vessel reached port (Laist et al., 2001; Rockwood et al., 2017).

There does not seem to be many records of blue whale ship strikes in the Atlantic Ocean. Although the reporting is not systematic, there are no reports of ship strikes from any NAMMCO member countries, and none seem to have been reported in the IWC’s ship strike database. Laist et al. (2001) only found one record of a ship strike from the Atlantic Ocean in their review; a dead, juvenile blue whale that was carried on the bow of a tanker as it entered Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island in 1998. However, at least 25% of photo-identified whales in the Gulf of St. Lawrence carry scars attributable to collisions with ships, something that could have a negative impact on populations (Laist et al., 2001; Rockwood et al., 2017; Sears & Perrin, 2018).

© Peter Duley, NOAA Fisheries


Increasing anthropogenic noise from shipping and oil explorations may limit the recovery of blue whales (Sears & Perrin, 2018) due to changes in behaviour and cessation of feeding. Blue whales have been shown to alter their vocalizations in areas with ongoing seismic surveys, calling consistently more on seismic exploration days than non-exploration days (Di Iorio & Clark, 2010).

Military sonars

Several aspects of blue whale diving behaviour have been shown to be significantly affected by the exposure to mid-frequency sound, where the whale’s initial behaviour state was strongly affecting their reactions. Whales that were deep feeding or not feeding were affected the most, while animals feeding at the surface were affected the least (Goldbogen, Southall et al., 2013). Similarly, responses due to military sonars were found in more than 50% of deep-feeding whales, while surface-feeding whales displayed no changes (Southall et al., 2019). Both studies found behavioural changes to include termination of feeding behaviours, changes in diving behaviour and horizontal avoidance of the sound source. Especially the cessation of feeding could majorly affect the individual blue whales as it reduces the foraging efficiency, and could possibly also affect the whales on a population level.

Persistent organic pollutants

Persistent organic pollution levels in blue whales are not known. As with other marine mammal species, it may have an impact on reproduction and limit the recovery of certain populations (Sears & Perrin, 2018).


© Richard Holt, NOAA Fisheries

Climate change

The exact implications of climate change on oceanographic conditions and processes are unknown, as well as their subsequent implications for whales. Reduced productivity of some ecosystems and unpredictable weather events caused by altered ocean water temperatures, changing ocean currents, rising sea levels and reductions in sea ice are predicted as likely consequences of climate change.

Due to both increasing ocean acidity and reduced ocean productivity associated with warming waters, a decline in the Antarctic blue whale’s main food, the krill species Euphausia superba and E. crystallorophias is predicted (Cooke, 2018). Such changes are likely also in other oceans.

The blue whale is not a target species of abundance surveys in the North Atlantic. However, it is still encountered and recorded during surveys in all NAMMCO areas.


There is no ongoing research on blue whales in Greenland, but they are recorded on acoustic buoys.


Project Blue Whale” launched in 2008 and aims to gain more knowledge of blue whales using techniques such as photo-identification, sound recording, genetic sampling, behavioural and prey logging, and, from 2012, tagging with AUSOMS mini (Automatic Underwater Sound Monitoring System). It is led by researchers from the University of Iceland’s Research Centre in Húsavik and cooperates with the Marine and Freshwater Research Institute and the Húsavik Whale Museum, among others. The photo-identification part of this project was started in 2001, and is mostly focusing on blue and humpback whales and white-sided dolphins, the species most commonly observed in Skjálfandi Bay.

One blue whale was satellite tagged in mid-July 2013 and two in 2014 north of Iceland. The whale tagged in 2013 travelled southwards to 59° N, and the two tagged the year after travelled north of Iceland towards 73° N. In 2016, another blue whale was instrumented with a satellite tag, and data from it was received from 24th June until 2nd August (National Progress Report Iceland, 2016).

Animals identified earlier via photo-id off West Iceland in mid-summer has been identified north of Iceland in mid-summer in recent years. Iceland is also collecting biopsy samples and had 10-20 samples stored in the MRI archive in 2014 (NAMMCO, 2014). In 2015, the HCR made recordings of blue whales using a large hydrophone array (National Progress Report Iceland, 2015). In 2017 and 2018, acoustic tags were deployed on a total of 4 whales in Skjálfandi Bay (National Progress Report Iceland, 2017, 2018).


Although not a target species of surveys, the blue whale is regularly sighted around Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Øien, 2019). During a survey in August 2017, many blue whales were seen north of Svalbard. A total of 4 summer surveys have been done, and Norway is preparing an analysis of the presence of blue whales in relation to relevant prey species in the upper 100-150 m (NAMMCO, 2017).

Passive acoustic listening devices have been deployed at various sites around Svalbard, collecting data on the phenology of arrivals and departures to the area (NAMMCO, 2015). Photos for identification studies are also collected, with Iceland providing photos to the same study (NAMMCO 2016, 2017).

Tagging of blue whales by the NPI, Svalbard. © Kit M. Kovacs/Norwegian Polar Institute
Tagging of blue whales by the NPI, Svalbard. © Guttorm Christensen/Akvaplan-NIVA

Satellite tracking

The Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) started instrumenting animals with satellite tracking devices in 2014, and they are also collecting biopsies for studies of genetics, diet and ecotoxicology. This work is ongoing, with new efforts scheduled for autumn 2019. In 2017, a total of 20 biopsies had thus far been collected around Svalbard, and 4 more were collected in 2018 (NAMMCO, 2017; National Progress Report Norway, 2018). Initial results from the satellite tracks of tagged whales have showed that blue whales move in the same pattern between Svalbard and Iceland through the Denmark Strait, which was also the area where the sightings of blue whales were during the surveys. 1 animal tagged in 2018 was close to the west coast of Iceland in November the same year.

Tagging and biopsy sampling of a blue whale by the NPI, in Isfjorden, Svalbard. © Andrew Lowther/Norwegian Polar Institute

Collaborative studies

The Mingan Island Cetacean Study (MICS) curate the western and eastern North Atlantic blue whale catalogues, and blue whale photos collected around Svalbard and Iceland are contributed to these catalogues.

A worldwide project, “Happy whale”, help tracking individual whales throughout the world’s oceans by providing a website were photos can be posted and will then be available for anyone to use (NAMMCO, 2017).

In 2018, the Scientific Committee of NAMMCO was informed that the International Whaling Commission has recommended that an estimate of blue whales be generated, with a specific recommendation to use photo ID catalogues. The IWC has specifically requested participation in this work from Iceland, the US and Canada.

9 blue whales die after getting trapped off Newfoundland’s coast (2014, 9th April), CTV News. Retrieved from:

Abrahms, B., Hazen, E.L., Aikens, E.O., Savoca, M.S., Goldbogen, J.A., Bograd, S.J., Jacox, M.G., Irvine, L.M., Palacios, D.M., Mate, B.R. (2019). Memory and resource tracking drive blue whale migrations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Mar 2019, 116 (12) 5582-5587; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1819031116

Allison C. (2017). International Whaling Commission Catch Data Base v. 6.1.

Árnason, Ú, Spilliaert, R., Pálsdóttir, Á.K. and Árnason, A. (1991). Molecular identification of hybrids between the two largest whale species, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and the fin whale (B. physalus). Hereditas 115:183-189.

Baines, M., Reichelt, M. & Griffin, D. (2017). An autumn aggregation of fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and blue whales (B. musculus) in the Porcupine Seabight, southwest of Ireland. Deep-Sea Research Part II 141:168-177

Beauchamp, J., Bouchard, H., de Margerie, P., Otis, N., Savaria, J.-Y. (2009). Recovery Strategy for the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), Northwest Atlantic population, in Canada [FINAL]. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa. 62 pp. Available at:

Bérubé, M. and Aguilar, A. (1998). A new hybrid between a blue whale, (Balaenoptera musculus), and a fin whale, (B. physalus): Frequency and implications of hybridization. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14 (1):82-98

Bérubé, M., Oosting, T., Aguilar, A., Hao, W., Kovacs, K. M., Landry, S., … Palsboll, P. (2017). Are the “Bastards” Coming Back? Molecular Identification of the First Live Blue and Fin Whale Hybrids in the North Atlantic Ocean. Abstract from 22nd Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Halifax, Canada.

Calambokidis, J., Schorr, G.S., Steiger, G.H., Francis, J., Bakhtiari, M. Marshall, G., Oleson, E., Gendron, D. & Robertson, K. (2008). Insights into the underwater diving, feeding, and calling behavior of blue whales from a suction-cup attached video-imaging tag (CRITTERCAM). Marine Technology Society Journal 41:19-29.

Cipriano, F. & Palumbi, S.R. (1999). Genetic tracking of a protected whale. Nature 397:307-308.

Cooke, J.G. (2018). Balaenoptera musculusThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T2477A50226195. Downloaded on 14 May 2019.

COSEWIC (2002). COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 32 pp.

COSEWIC (2012). COSEWIC status appraisal summary on the Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus, Atlantic population, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. xii pp. (

Covelo, P., Ocio, G. & Hidalgo, J. (2017). First record of a live blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) in the Iberian Peninsula after three decades. Galemys, 29:34-37. DOI: 10.7325/Galemys.2017.N6

Di Iorio, L. & Clark, C.W. (2009). Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication. Biology Letters 6(1).

Ellis, R. (1991) Men and Whales. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Goldbogen, J.A., Calambokidis, J., Friedlaender, A.S., Francis, J., DeRuiter, S.L., Stimpert, A.K., Falcone, E. & Southall, B.L. (2012). Underwater acrobatics by the world’s largest predator: 360° rolling manoeuvres by lunge-feeding blue whales. Biol. Lett. 9.

Goldbogen, J.A, Friedlaender, A.S., Calambokidis, J., McKenna, M.F., Simon, M. & Nowacek, D.P. (2013). Integrative Approaches to the Study of Baleen Whale Diving Behavior, Feeding Performance, and Foraging Ecology. Bioscience 63:90-100.

Goldbogen, J.A., Southall, B.L., DeRuiter, S.L., Calambokidis, J., Friedlaender, A.S., Hazen, E.L., Falcone, E.A., Schorr, G.S., Douglas, A., Moretti, D.J., Kyburg, C., McKenna, M.F. & Tyack, P.L. (2013). Blue whales respond to simulated mid-frequency military sonar. Proc. R. Soc. B. 280(1765).

Gomez, C., Lawson, J., Kouwenberg, A.-L., Moors-Murphy, H., Buren, A., Fuentes-Yaco, C., Marotte, E., Wiersma, Y.F. & Wimmer, T. (2017). Predicted distribution of whales at risk: identifying priority areas to enhance cetacean monitoring in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Endangered Species Research 32:437-458.

Hammond, P.S., Lacey, C., Gilles, A., Viquerat, S., Börjesson, P., Herr, H., Macleod, K., Ridoux, V., Santos, M.B., Scheidat, M., Teilmann, J., Vingada, J. & Øien, N. (2017). Estimates of cetacean abundance in European Atlantic waters in summer 2016 from the SCANS-III aerial and shipboard survesy. Wageningen Marine Research.

Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Kleivane, L., Øien, N., Laidre, K. L. & Jensen, M. V. (2001). A new technique for satellite tagging baleen whales: tracking a blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) in the North Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science, 17: 949–954.

Kot, B.W., Sears, R., Zbinden, D., Borda, E. & Gordon, M.S. (2014). Rorqual whale (Balaenopteridae) surface lunge-feeding behaviors: Standardized classification, repertoire diversity, and evolutionary analyses. Marine Mammal Science 30(4):1335-1357.

Laidre, K.L. & Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. (2012). Spring partitioning of Disko Bay, West Greenland, by Arctic and Subarctic baleen whales. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69(7), 1226–1233. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fss095

Laist, D.W., Knowlton, A.R., Mead, J.G., Collet, A.S. & Podesta, M. (2001). Collisions between ships and whales. Marine Mammal Science, 17(1):35-75.

Lawson, J.W., and Gosselin, J.-F. (2009). Distribution and preliminary abundance estimates for cetaceans seen during Canada’s marine megafauna survey – A component of the 2007 TNASS. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2009/031. vi + 28 p.

Leonard, D. & Øien, N. (2019a,b,c,d). 4 papers, NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 11. In press (will be updated)

Lesage, V., Gavrilchuk, K., Andrews, R.D. & Sears, R. (2017). Foraging areas, migratory movements and winter destinations of blue whales from the western North Atlantic. Endang Species Res 34: 27–43.

Lesage, V., Gosselin, J.-F., Lawson, J.W., McQuinn, I., Moors-Murphy, H., Plourde, S., Sears, R. & Simard, Y. (2018). Habitats important to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) in the western North Atlantic. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2016/080. iv + 50 p.

Long, J. A. (2012). The Dawn of the Deed: The Prehistoric Origins of Sex. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-49254-4.

Marine & Freshwater Research Institute (MFRI) (2018, 19th July). Press release from the Marine and Freshwater Research Institute (MFRI) – Peculiar baleen whale – genetic results. Retrieved from:

McDonald, M. A., Mesnick, S.L. & Hildebrand, J.A. (2006). Biogeographic characterization of blue whale song worldwide: Using song to identify populations. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8(1):55-65

McDonald, M. A., Hildebrand, J.A. & Mesnick, S.L. (2009). Worldwide decline in tonal frequencies of blue whale songs. Endangered Species Research 9:13-21. DOI: 10.3354/esr00217

McQuinn, I.H., Gosselin, J.-F., Bourassa, M.-N., Mosnier, A., St-Pierre, J.-F., Plourde, S., Lesage, V. & Raymond, A. (2016). The spatial association of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) with krill patches (Thysanoessa spp. and Meganyctiphanes norvegica) in the estuary and northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2016/104. iv + 19 pp.

Mellinger, D.K. & Clark, C.W. (2003). Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114(2):1108-19

Mingan Island Cetacean Study [MICS]. (n.d.). Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). Retrieved from:

Mizroch, S.A., Rice, D.W. & Breiwick, J.M. (1984). The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus. Marine Fisheries Review 46(4), 1984.

Muirhead, C.A., Warde, A.M., Biedron, I.S., Mihnovets, A.N., Clark, C.W. & Rice, A.N. (2018). Seasonal acoustic occurrence of blue, fin, and North Atlantic right whales in the New York Bight. Aquatic Conservation – Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 28(3):744-753. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2874

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA]. (n.d.). Blue Whales. Retrieved from:

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA]. (2018). National Report on Large Whale Entanglements Confirmed in the United States in 2017. Report, retrieved from:

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission [NAMMCO]. (2014). Report of the 21st Scientific Committee Meeting, 3-6 November, Norway, available from

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission [NAMMCO]. (2015). Report of the 22th Scientific Committee Meeting, 9-12 November, Faroe Islands, available from

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission [NAMMCO]. (2016). Report of the 23th Scientific Committee Meeting, 4-7 November, Greenland, available from

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission [NAMMCO]. (2017a). Marine Mammals: A multifaceted Resource, available from

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission [NAMMCO]. (2017b). Report of the 24th Scientific Committee Meeting, 14-17 November, Iceland, available from

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission [NAMMCO]. (2018a). Report of the 25th Scientific Committee Meeting, 13-16 November, Norway, available from

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission [NAMMCO]. (2018b). Report of the Working Group on Abundance Estimates, 22-24 May, Denmark, available from

Pike, D.G., Vikingsson, G.A., Gunnlaugsson, Th. & Øien, N. (2009). A note on the distribution and abundance of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) in the Central and Northeast North Atlantic. NAMMCO Sci Publ 7:19-29.

Pike, D.G., Gunnlaugsson, T., Mikkelsen, B., Halldórsson, S.D. & Víkingsson, G.A. (2019) Estimates of the abundance of cetaceans in the central North Atlantic based on the NASS Icelandic and Faroese shipboard surveys conducted in 2015. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 11.

Ramp, C., Bérube, M., Hagen, W. & Sears, R. (2006). Survival of adult blue whales Balaenoptera musculus in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 319:287-295

Reeves, R.R., Smith, T.D., Josephson, E.A., Clapham, P.J. & Woolmer, G. (2004). Historical observations of humpback and blue whales in the North Atlantic Ocean: Clues to migratory routes and possibly additional feeding grounds. Marine Mammal Science, 20(4):774-786.

Rockwood, R.C., Calambokidis, J. & Jahncke, J. (2017). High mortality of blue, humpback and fin whales from modelling of vessel collissions on the US West Coast suggests population impacts and insufficient protection. PLoS One 12(8); e018952 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183052

Sears, R. & Calambokidis, J. (2002). Update COSEWIC status report on the Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 1-32 pp.

Sears, R., Burton, C.L.K. & Vikingsson, G. (2005). Review of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) photo-identification distribution data in the North Atlantic, including the first long-range match between Iceland and Mauritania. Poster presented at the Sixteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Diego, California. Retrieved from

Sears, R., Perrin, W.F. (2018). Blue whale. In Würsig, B., Thewissen, J.G.M. & Kovacs, K.M. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 3rd edition (pp. 110-114). London (UK): Academic Press.

Sears, R., Ramp, C., Santos, R., Silva, M.A., Steiner, L., & Vikingsson, G.A. (2016). Comparison of the Northwest Atlantic-NWA and Northeast Atlantic-NEA Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) photo-identification catalogs.

Silva, M.A., Prieto, R., Jonsen, I., Baumgartner, M.F., Santos, R.S. (2013). North Atlantic Blue and Fin Whales Suspend Their Spring Migration to Forage in Middle Latitutes: Building up Energy Reserves for the Journey? PLoS ONE 8(10): e76507.

Silva, M.A., Prieto, R., Cascão, I., Seabra, M.I., Machete, M., Baumgartner, M.F., Santos, R.S. (2014). Spatial and temporal distribution of cetaceans in the mid-Atlantic waters around the Azores. Mar. Biol. Res. 10, 123–137.

Southall, B.L., DeRuiter, S.L., Friedlander, A., Stimpert, A.K., Goldbogen, J.A., Hazen, E., Casey, C., Fregosi, S., Cade, D.E., Allen, A.N., Harris, C.M., Schorr, G., Moretti, D., Guan, S. & Calambokidis, J. (2019). Behavioral responses of individual blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) to mid-frequency military sonar. Journal of Experimental Biology 222.

Spilliaert, R., Vikingsson, G., Arnason, U., Sigurjonson, A. and Arnason, A. (1991). Species hybridization between a female blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and a male fin whale (B. physalus): molecular and morphological documentation. Journal of Heredity. 82:269-274.

Torres, L. (2016). “The Power and Beauty of Two Blue Whales Racing”Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2019.

Tønnessen, J.N. & Johnsen, A.O. (1982). The History of Modern Whaling. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Vikingsson, G.A., Pike, D.G., Valdimarsson, H., Schleimer, A., Gunnlaugsson, Th., Silva, T., Elvarsson, B.Þ., Mikkelsen, B., Øien, N., Desportes, G., Bogason, V. & Hammond, P.S. (2015). Distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of baleen whales in Icelandic waters: have recent environmental changes had an effect? Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 17(3).

Visser F., Hartman K.L., Pierce G.J., Valavanis V.D. & Huisman J. (2011). Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom. Marine Ecology Progress Series 440: 267-279.

Williams, T.M., Davis, R.W., Fuiman, L.A., Francis, J., Le Boeuf, B.J., Horning, M., Calambokidis, J. & Croll, D.A. (2000). Sink or Swim: Strategies for Cost-Efficient Diving by Marine Mammals. Science (80-) 288:133-136.

Øien, N. (2019). Blåhval. Retrieved from, 5 July 2019

Start typing and press Enter to search